Philosophy: Most Popular Articles
The nature of beauty is one of the most fascinating riddles of philosophy. Is beauty universal? How do we know it? How can we predispose ourselves to embrace it? Nearly every major philosopher has engaged with these questions and their cognates, including the great figures of ancient Greek philosophy such as Plato and Aristotle.
The choice of a philosophy graduate program can be extremely difficult. In the U.S.A. alone, there are over one hundred of well-established departments granting graduate degrees (M.A., M.Phil., or Ph.D.) Needless to say, Canada, the U.K., Australia, France, Spain, Holland, Belgium, Germany, and a few other countries have graduate programs that are well-regarded too. How to decide where is most suitable to study?
What is beauty? How to tell what is art from what art is not? These are the two fundamental questions if aesthetics. The first one concerns beauty in its most general form, thus not only artifacts, but also beauty as encountered in a landscape, a sunset, a stone, or a flower. What is it that makes something beautiful? Is beauty always one and the same property, exemplified by entities of radically different sorts?
The time from which five great philosophical traditions originated: the Platonist, the Aristotelian, the Stoic, the Epicurean, and the Skeptic.
What is friendship? How many types of friendship can we recognize and in what degree shall we seek each of them? Several of the greatest philosophers have addressed those questions and neighboring ones. Let’s see some illustrations of their work.
Socrates and Meno discuss the nature of virtue?
What is specific about philosophical reading? Which tips and guidelines can you follow to improve your understanding of philosophical texts? How to use philosophy books to enhance your philosophical curiosity and the one of your peers?
René Descartes (1596-1650) famously produced some original arguments to prove God's existence. The arguments played a key role in his Meditations on First Philosophy, as they allowed him to conclude that something beyond himself existed. Here goes a reconstruction of the arguments, as found in the third meditation.
Nominalism and Realism are the two most distinguished positions in western metaphysics dealing with the fundamental structure of reality. According to realists claim that all entities divide up into two major groups: particulars and universals; Nominalists instead argue that there are only particulars.
Reasons to study logic
Rationalism is the philosophical stance according to which reason is the ultimate source of human knowledge. It rivals empiricism according to which the senses suffice in justifying knowledge. In a form or another, rationalism features in most philosophical tradition; in the Western one, it boasts a long and distinguished list of followers, including Plato, Descartes, and Kant.
Literally it means “love of wisdom.” But, really, philosophy begins in wonder. So, what characterizes philosophical wonder? How does one achieve it?
Political science studies governments in all their forms and aspects, both theoretical and practical. Once a branch of philosophy, political science nowadays is typically considered a social science. The history of the discipline is virtually as long as that of humanity. Its roots in the Western tradition are typically individuated in the works of Plato and Aristotle.
Think about career prospects, specific areas of expertise of faculty and programs, and overall experience. Follow the links for more information.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Jean Paul Sartre
Empiricism is the philosophical stance according to which the senses are the ultimate source of human knowledge. It rivals rationalism according to which reason is the ultimate source of knowledge. In a form or another, empiricism features in most philosophical tradition. In Western philosophy, empiricism boasts a long and distinguished list of followers in all ages; probably, the most fertile period for this trend happened during the early modern period, with the so-called British empiricists, whose rank includes authors of the caliber of John Locke and David Hume.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >All You Need Is
Plato and Aristotle defended different views on the nature of women and of their role in society. This article collects some influential quotes on the topic.
Plato's account of how sexual desire for the beautiful body of a boy can be transformed into the quest for philosophical insight.
In some circumstances it is evident that violence is unjust. But some cases appear more debatable: can violence ever be justified?
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Culture and Human
The idea of a self plays a central role in philosophy. Three main types of views of the self are explored in this brief introduction.
A discussion of arguments against relativism, including concepts of truth, cultural perceptions, and more. Follow the links for further online readings.
While lying can been seen as a threat to civil society, there seem to be several instances in which it seems to be the most intuitively moral option.
An explanation of the term 'Socratic ignorance'
Some basic information for those new to the subject.
Who Is?: Niccolò Machiavelli was one of the most influential political theorists of Western philosophy.
Who Is?: Plato is one of the most influential philosophers to date and the first Western thinker whose
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" > What do you know,
What is violence? What forms can it take? Can human life be void of violence, and should it be? Explore these ethical dilemmas and more in this article.
A brief clarification of Sartre's account of consciousness
Brief life of Descartes. Philosophy.
Simple explanation with examples of the hypothetico-deductive method
Does Plato's 'Meno' prove we have innate ideas?
There are plenty of hilarious philosophy jokes out there, some of which could easily be incorporated as teaching materials, both for children and adults.
Ethics is one of the major branches of philosophy and an ethical theory is part and parcel of all philosophies broadly conceived.
New theories of mind and matter, of the divine, and of civic society - among others - were proposed by figures such as Descartes, Locke, Hume, and Kant.
Skepticism is precisely the attitude of doubting the reliability of one’s sources. Learn about the history of skepticism and the contemporary responses.
Here find a selection of the most influential blogs in philosophy to date along with some additional useful sources like the Philosophical Gourmet Report.
The idea of nature is one of the most widely employed in philosophy, and by the same token one of the most ill-defined. Authors such as Aristotle and relied on the concept of nature to explain the fundamental tenets of their views, without ever attempting to define the concept. Even in contemporary philosophy, the idea is oftentimes employed, in different forms. So, what is nature?
Some tips on how to study for a philosophy exam
Descartes revolutionized scientific methodology, established a new conception of human nature, and linked algebra to geometry, among a host of other things.
Nature and culture are often seen as opposite ideas: what belongs to nature cannot be the result of human intervention and, on the other hand, cultural development is achieved against nature. However, this is by far the only take on the relationship between nature and culture. Studies in the evolutionary development of humans suggest that culture is part and parcel of the ecological niche within which our species thrived, thus rendering culture a chapter in the biological development of a species.
While it may be tempting to define honesty as speaking the truth and abiding to the rules, this may turn out to be overtly simplistic. Telling the truth – the whole truth – is at times practically and theoretically impossible as well as morally not required or even wrong. Suppose your new partner asks you to be honest about what you have done over the past week, when you were apart: does this mean you’ll have to tell everything you have done?
What reasons in favor of relativism can be brought forward? That people tend to have different views with respect to a same issue seems to be a platitude. Generational gaps, differences in social status, upbringing, religion, scientific perspectives can all contribute, at one time or other, to form contrasting opinions. Some people take these situations to provide a plethora of evidence to take a relativistic attitude towards the topic at hand. Of course not everyone agrees, affirming that relativism ought to be resisted. Needless to say, to a relativist the disagreement will just be additional evidence that she is on the right side of the debate.
Time is a central and classical theme in philosophy. It can be taken up from several angles, including epistemology (how do we know of the existence of a past or a future?), phenomenology (the time lived and perceived as opposed to external time), philosophy of language (the relevance of tenses in communication), philosophy of mind (e.g. time and memory), ethics (e.g., human life ought to be lived with the horizon of our death in view), social philosophy (the importance of recurring rituals in the structuring of a society, e.g. bells, New Year’s, 4th of July …) In this article we shall look at time from a metaphysical point of view.
How Socrates answers Meno's challenge in Plato's 'Meno'
Beauty is one of the most intricate and fascinating topics of philosophical discussion. It has been taken up in relationship to a host of other subjects, such as truth, the good, the sublime, and pleasure. Here is a selection of quotes on beauty, divided into different themes.
Liberalism's core values are expressed in terms of individual freedom and equality, democracy, capitalism, freedom of religion, and human rights.
The beautiful, the sublime, and the picturesque are three key concepts in aesthetics and philosophy of art. Together, they help mapping the variety of aesthetically significant experiences. The differentiation among the three concepts took place in seventeenth and eighteenth hundreds, and is still to these days of some significance, despite the difficulty in pinning down each of the three concepts.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Lying is a complex
Though education is often thought in relation to the school system, educational processes aren't restricted to what is imparted in a school setting.
The meaning of the term 'Socratic wisdom'
Nominalism and Realism are the two most distinguished positions in western metaphysics dealing with the fundamental categories of reality. From the millenary debate between supporters of those two opposed camps spurred some of the most puzzling problems in metaphysics. Here we shall review the problems with realism, that are no less hard than the problems faced by nominalists.
A historical summation of the concept of humanism, including information about famous thinkers and the influence on western philosophy.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Who Is?: One of
The remakable story of the ugly little man who fascinated Athens and changed the world
Galileo Galilei was one of the protagonists of the scientific revolution, best known for his astronomical discoveries by means of a telescope (including sunspots, Jupiter’s satellites, and the phases of Venus), for his defense of heliocentrism, and and for his study of the natural laws regarding falling bodies. Galileo, however, gave key contributions also to the development of the modern scientific methodology; for this reason, he holds a special place in the philosophy of science and epistemology.
The Prince is the most read work by Florentine author Niccolò Machiavelli and one of the masterpieces of Western political thought. It is a small treatise composed of twenty-six chapters and aiming to educate a young adult about how to maintain power in a princedom regardless of the situation. Machiavelli’s precepts subverted Aristotelian ethics, turning what was the most regarded theory upside town.
A brief biography of the man many would call the greatest philosopher in the history of Western civilization.
Explore the issues behind biodiversity, wildlife management, ecological preservation, hunting practices, farming techniques, and food regulations.
Consequentialism is perhaps the most developed view of ethics, according to which the ethical worth of an action is proportional to its consequences. In particular, consequentialism holds that among all the possible courses of action, an agent should pursue the one that, overall, brings about the greatest amount of good – or, in jargon, the one that maximizes good.
Sex and gender are among the most debated philosophical topics of the past few decades, and rightly so, as the conceptions of these two notions have changed – I would say matured – extensively. In this piece I shall collect some of the most remarkable statements about sex made by contemporary philosophers. I hope you enjoy them and, if you have any suggestion, please don’t hesitate to send it in.
Socrates and Euthyphro try to define piety.
Violence is a central concept for describing social relationships among humans, a concept loaded with ethical and political significance. Yet, what is violence? What forms can it take? Can human life be void of violence, and should it be? These are some of the hard questions that a theory of violence shall address.
Can food be art? This is a question that has received increasing attention over the past few decades in aesthetics; in this article we shall deal with the main reasons that have been brought forth against the palatability of gastronomic experiences being, in some instances, forms of ultimate artistic experiences.
Metaphysics is one of the core branches of philosophy and it is among the oldest ones. Metaphysics centers on the study of the most fundamental categories of reality and their relations, such as god, person, thing, event, property, causation. The question typical of this branch is, hence: “What is there, really?”
Mary Wollstonecraft is best known for her philosophical and political insightful fervor, especially for her strenuous and lucid defense of the rights of women in society. This excerpt, taken from the third chapter of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, bears witness to a well-articulated picture.
Truth is a topic of major significance within any philosophy branch. Virtually every philosophers has to come to terms, in one way or another, with the nature of truth. Because of this, the array of positions regarding truth is as wide as that of philosophical schools and theories that have been proposed. In this article we will review the main positions on the nature of truth that characterize Western philosophy.
Voltaire’s writings are most famous for their advocacy of the autonomy of the individual and the State with respect to the church.
Do you wonder whether sexual categories are natural or conventional? Explore this article for information and further online readings.
Plato and Aristotle have proposed radical views on the family, which influenced the debate on the topic in Western philosophy. This article collects some influential quotes on the topic.
Who Is?: John Locke is one of the most important figures in British empiricism and one of the main authors
A brief outline of Plato's 'Republic'
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" > Logic is one
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >"Be yourself.
Immanuel Kant is one of the most important philosophers of Western tradition, and among the most systematics. He is best known for his transcendental philosophy, which he viewed as a revolution for the humanities comparable to the one brought forth by Copernicus in the sciences. He authored a vast number of texts, including the three critiques: Critique of Pure Reason(first published in 1781, then in a revised version in 1787), Critique of Practical Reason(1788), Critique of Judgment (1790).
In a certain sense, humans have always been globalized. The widespread use of cooking techniques (such as fire, or reducing a food into a paste), the diffusion of agricultural techniques (e.g. farming of cereals or grasses), fashion items (e.g. shoes), and housing styles all bear witness to a common history. After all, humans share a substantially common evolutionary history and an ecosystem (the Earth). Then, why so much fuss about globalization today? And, what is globalization anyway?
David Hume is one of the most distinguished empiricists and skeptics of the Western tradition. A prominent figure in the history of early modern philosophy, according to some he is also the most important thinker to ever write in English...
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >The Problem The
Brief explanations of the key terms in Kuhn's account of scientific revolutions
How can food lead to deep philosophical discussions? Find how it reflects on the ethical, political, social, artistic, identity-defining aspects of life.
What’s the difference between cheerfulness and happiness? Trying to offer an answer to this question may help to shed light on a number of important aspects of ethics, politics, and practical living. In this article I will offer a few remarks on how a philosophy encompassing both cheerfulness and happiness may be developed.
Philosophy of food is an emerging branch in philosophy. Here is a list of quotes that are pertinent to it; if you happen to have additional suggestions, please do send them along!
Zen is famous in the West thanks to its short, elliptical, yet intriguing proverbs and sayings. Here is a list of some famous Zen quotations.
To what extent is the use of rhetorical figures in philosophical writing, such as metaphors and analogies, the mark of a weakness on the part of the author? Can we sort out different styles of philosophizing, such as analytic and continental, based on their use of rhetorical devices?
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >You hear the phrase
How to tell an artwork from what is a work of art is not? What is it that makes an object, or a gesture, a work of art? Those questions lie at the core of Philosophy of Art, a major subfield of Aesthetics. Here is a collection of quotes on the subject.
The central concept of Kant's ethics explained simply
A summary an commentary on Plato's dialog, the 'Symposium', where Socrates and his friends take turns praising Love
Sport ethics has come to be a foremost point of contact between philosophy, civil institutions, and society at large.
Since the advent of internet, philosophy sources on the web have grown steadily both in number and varieties. Nowadays, having an online profile and being up to date with regard to the latest debates, trends, and news on the subject has become a (almost obligatory) routine for professional philosophers, aspiring ones, and amateurs. Here we shall trace a map of philosophical encyclopedias as well as philosophy radios and TVs. Philosophy blogs, journals, and bibliographies will be treated separately.
Baruch Spinoza was a Dutch philosopher of Jewish descent, to date one of the most distinguished in the history of his land, and a prominent figure in early modern philosophy. He is most famous for having defended two doctrines. The first is a form of monism in metaphysics. The second is the rebuttal of any objective basis for good and evil in ethics.
Crito, a wealthy old man and one of Socrates' oldest friends visits him in prison
Enlightenment, or the Age of the Enlightened, was an intellectual movement most fertile between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in central Europe (France and Germany most distinctly) as well as in Russia and North America. The movement converged around the (at times unconditional) belief in the light of reason, regarded as the best gift to guide human agency, both theoretical and practical. The list of authors affiliated to some degree with the movement is particularly extensive and includes figures such as Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu, Smith, Kant, Franklin, and Jefferson. The work that most embodies the spirit of enlightenment is probably the Encyclopédie that d’Alembert and Diderot assembled between 1751 and 1772.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >"Beauty is truth,
The idea of simplicity has played a key role in the development of scientific hypotheses and theories. Depending on the perspective of the researcher, and more broadly on the historical framework, the simple structure of reality has been understood in different manners. Here are the main ones.
Good jokes illustrating features of scientific reasoning
Simple explanations of induction, deduction, validity and soundness.
How to prove arguments invalid using counterexamples
That certain sentences involving liars are paradoxical has been known for a long time. Perhaps the earliest written formulation of the liar paradox within Western philosophy dates back to the Ancient Greek period: it is due to Eubulides of Miletus, author of several other important logical paradoxes too. If a person says that she is a liar, is what she’s saying true or false? Suppose it’s true: then the person is not a liar; but then it’s actually false that she is a liar. If instead what the person is saying is false, then she is a liar; but then what she is saying is true. Either way, we reach conclusions that seem – literally – incredible; that’s the mark of paradoxicality. In this article we will concentrate on the solutions to the paradox.
A reader asked me whether it is acceptable, or just, or good of a human being cynical. This seems an interesting question to be entertained. I hence decided to write a piece on the topic ...
John, Paul, George, and Ringo may not have been deep original thinkers, but some of their best songs touch on topics of interest to philosophers.
One of the most influential philosophers to date, Aristotle was a student of Plato and the teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings redefined or established an impressive variety of areas, including ethics, metaphysics, political philosophy, logic, epistemology, rhetoric, and tragedy.
A brief account of Plato's 'Apology'--Socrates' speech at his trial
What is violence? And, accordingly, how should non-violence be understood? While I have written a number of articles on these and related topics, it is useful to look at how philosophers have synthesized their views on violence. Here is a selection of quotes, sorted out into topics.
Philosophy is one of the most spontaneous and profound activities humans can pursue; but, what can you do with a major in philosophy? Here are eleven reasons to choose the examined life .
To respect someone or something is to value that person or thing. What else can we say about respect to be able to teach it and to practice it? To start addressing such a need, I compiled a list of quotes on respect, which may be compared to quotes on equality and dignity. If you have any other passage you would like to share, please send in your suggestions!
The philosophy of hunting is a subfield of the philosophy of food, which deals most importantly with the ethical, environmental, and evolutionary aspects of the practice of hunting. Among its central questions: can hunting ever be regarded as morally good? Which methods for hunting are most ethical? Is hunting for sport rather than for food, e.g. fox hunting, ever morally permissible? Can hunting better reconnect us with wildlife? Can hunting shed light on our evolutionary past?
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" > Relativistic
Clarification of philosophical terms used by Jean Paul Sartre
The picturesque is an idea of importance to aesthetic theory. It stands in contrast to the idea of beauty as well as to the idea of the sublime. I have discussed the comparison between the three ideas in a separate article. This article goes in more details regarding the picturesque.
A summary of Book X of Plato's Republic
Confronted with the problem of explaining change, Aquinas borrows from Aristotle three notions, that he calls principia (principles): matter, privation, form. Briefly put, form is whatever quality a substance possesses; the acquisition of such quality may have happened either at the very moment in which the substance was created, or during the course of its existence.
What is love? What is the relationship between love and beauty, or love and truth, or love and justice? While I’ve written about those topics, it is refreshing to read poignant quotes on them. Here is a compilation of some favorite passages on love.
Parmenides is probably the first great philosopher of the Western canon. His philosophy seems to have embodied several of the distinctive traits of Ancient Greek philosophy, most notably the exclusive reliance on reason; Parmenides had a deep influence on Plato's and Aristotle's thinking, whose work can by and large be seen as a response to Parmenides’s.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Simone de Beauvoir
How to write a solid philosophy paper? Which practices should you follow and which ones to avoid? Here are ten simple and general steps you can follow.
Is philosophy ever literature? That is, if you were to make a list of some valuable samples of literature, would you be inclined to include any philosophical text? If you would, which criteria should you follow for inclusion in the list?
Descartes famously affirmed the centrality of the first-person in philosophy. Self-consciousness, to him, is the place from within our understanding of metaphysics and epistemology (and derivatively ethics, aesthetics, and all other philosophical endeavors) ultimately rest. I know that I exist, I am certain of it as I cannot fail to recognizing myself as thinking without actually being thinking; everything else follows.
Despite the difficulties in nailing down its details, vegetarianism seems to be backed up by a wealth of ethical arguments. For this reason, turning to a vegetarian diet seems to be one of the most pressing issues for our contemporary society. In this article we shall review the main reasons in favor of a vegetarian diet.
A map of Ancient Greek philosophy usually lists four major schools, each of which can be traced back to Socrates: the Platonist, the Aristotelian, the Stoic, and the Epicurean. There is, however, a fifth school, which developed in conversation with Socrates’s teachings – the Cynic. Cynics are often unrecognized as forming a school, primarily because they had no specific place for meeting, but rather practiced their philosophical creeds in city streets, Athens being the first and foremost. Few teachings were transmitted in written form and what we are left with is instead a series of sayings and deeds, often in the form of anecdotes. A good proportion of the information that we have, moreover, is due to sources that looked at the cynics in a rather antagonistic fashion, which renders a reconstruction of the cynic views fated to be uncertain. Despite this, history records a fair number of prominent cynic figures, spanning across several generations; as I am inclined to regard of secondary importance, from a philosophical standpoint, whether a tradition developed within a formally established school or recorded its chief tenets in writing, I will refer to the cynics as forming a school. The reader should however be warned that the appellation is somewhat contentious.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >An Epistemic Conundrum
Vegetarianism seems to be backed up by a wealth of reasons, despite the difficulties in its formulation. At the same time, most people do not practice a vegetarian diet. It might well be, of course, that they are immoral – after all, who ever said that the majority of people is morally blameless? However, there may be also considerations leading to defend a non-vegetarian diet. In this article we shall review the main ones.
Six different answers to the question of whether the soul is immortal that can be found in Plato's dialogues.
What is humor and how is it used among humans to enhance or hinder their relationships? Plenty of philosophers have asked this question, trying to come up with a theory of humor that could also separate such a state from mere laughter as well as good from bad quality humor.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Equality is one
A simple explanation of Thomas Kuhn's ideas about paradigm shifts in science
The pros and cons of moral relativism
Philosophy of language takes central place in contemporary philosophizing and its dealt in quite different manners in the analytic and continental traditions (roughly, the modern-day Anglo-Saxon and German-French philosophical schools respectively). In the analytic tradition, philosophy of language has focused on the characterization of meaning, on the explanation of language use and understanding, and on the relationship between language and reality. The continental tradition, instead, language has been seen an institution emerging within certain biological and socio-political structures. Champions of the first approach are authors such as Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, Paul Grice, and Willard Quine; the second approach was particularly influenced by the figures of Martin Heidegger, Hans-Georg Gadamer, and Paul Ricoeur.
An amusing and effective way way of illustrating and remembering some common informal fallacies.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >A Plea for Purposeless
Whether the thought of it was implicit in your attitude or whether you actually took the time to spell it out, there is a great deal of philosophical substance in sport. Any sport, really. From team sports such as football and basketball to individual sports such as tennis and car racing, it is easy to devise a plethora of philosophical issues that span across most philosophical branches.
A brief biography of Hegel (1770-1831)
Philosophy of mind is a core area of philosophical research, which touches on a wide spectrum of themes, including: the nature of meaning (in conjunction with philosophy of language; the relationships between mind and body; the metaphysical status of the mind; self-consciousness; agency.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" > Necessity and
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >British writer
Socrates argues for the soul's immortality in his final hours
The advent of internet has had a tremendous effect not only for the dissemination of new forms of philosophical content such as philosophy radios and TVs, philosophy blogs, encyclopedias and bibliographies; also traditional forms of dissemination of scholarly content were deeply affected in a number of ways. Philosophy journals are no exception and we shall review the online sources to access them here.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >A Recent Suggestion
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a central figure in the philosophy of Enlightenment. Among his major contributions, a theory of education and human development that was widely debated and that still draws some heated debates. This article collects some important quotes from Rousseau on the topic.
Epicurus' recipe for a good life: simple pleasures, wisdom, and friendship
How Socrates and Alcibiades embody 2 different kinds of love
Ethical consumerism has become a central concept for shoppers around the world. Labels such as Fair Trade and organic are just the tip of the iceberg of a specialized market that kept growing over the years and expanding to the most remote sectors of commerce. Needless to say, however, being an ethical consumer is not that easy. Articles abound detailing the unreliability of labels, or the fact that labels do not convey sufficient or relevant information regarding products that we consume. More hard-nosed criticisms of ethical consumerism can be raised, however. In this article I will present the three that strike me as most compelling.
Jokes that illustrate ideas in the theory of knowledge
Coercion is a key concept to depict human relationships, to denounce abuses and episodes of violence. Yet, when is it that an agent is coerced by another? That is, what are the conditions on the coercion-relationship that make it possible to take place? What need the coercer do in an episode of coercion? And, who is to say that there was an episode of coercion?
Summary of Plato's Republic, Book III
While we are drawn to experiencing the sublime and we value it for its aesthetic worth, such an experience is also mixed with negative pleasures and negative feelings. For instance, looking at the ocean, while standing in the middle of it aboard a small boat, I may aesthetically appreciate the majesty of the seemingly unending basin of water. At once, however, a sense of abandonment may assail me.
Definitions of basic concepts in logic
How do you know your next cup of coffee won't kill you? The problem of induction.