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Philosophy: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
How to Study for a Philosophy Exam - Write!
Some tips on how to study for a philosophy exam
What Is Beauty? A Philosophical Quest for an...
The nature of beauty is one of the most fascinating riddles of philosophy. Is beauty universal? How do we know it? How can we predispose ourselves to embrace it? Nearly every major philosopher has engaged with these questions and their cognates, including the great figures of ancient Greek philosophy such as Plato and Aristotle.
3 of Descartes's Arguments for Proofs of God's...
René Descartes (1596-1650) famously produced some original arguments to prove God's existence. The arguments played a key role in his Meditations on First Philosophy, as they allowed him to conclude that something beyond himself existed. Here goes a reconstruction of the arguments, as found in the third meditation.
The Best US Philosophy Graduate Programs
The choice of a philosophy graduate program can be extremely difficult. In the U.S.A. alone, there are over one hundred of well-established departments granting graduate degrees (M.A., M.Phil., or Ph.D.) Needless to say, Canada, the U.K., Australia, France, Spain, Holland, Belgium, Germany, and a few other countries have graduate programs that are well-regarded too. How to decide where is most suitable to study?
The Philosophical Theories for Nominalism and...
Nominalism and Realism are the two most distinguished positions in western metaphysics dealing with the fundamental structure of reality. According to realists claim that all entities divide up into two major groups: particulars and universals; Nominalists instead argue that there are only particulars.
10 Steps to Tackling a Philosophy Text
What is specific about philosophical reading? Which tips and guidelines can you follow to improve your understanding of philosophical texts? How to use philosophy books to enhance your philosophical curiosity and the one of your peers?
Rationalism: Reason and the Key to Knowledge
Rationalism is the philosophical stance according to which reason is the ultimate source of human knowledge. It rivals empiricism according to which the senses suffice in justifying knowledge. In a form or another, rationalism features in most philosophical tradition; in the Western one, it boasts a long and distinguished list of followers, including Plato, Descartes, and Kant.
20 Philosophical Quotes on the Nature of...
What is friendship? How many types of friendship can we recognize and in what degree shall we seek each of them? Several of the greatest philosophers have addressed those questions and neighboring ones. Let’s see some illustrations of their work.
How to Find the Best Philosophy Jokes for Your...
There are plenty of hilarious philosophy jokes out there, some of which could easily be incorporated as teaching materials, both for children and adults.
Famous Philosophy Majors
10 famous individuals who studied philosophy in college
The Self
The idea of a self plays a central role in philosophy. Three main types of views of the self are explored in this brief introduction.
Empiricism
Empiricism is the philosophical stance according to which the senses are the ultimate source of human knowledge. It rivals rationalism according to which reason is the ultimate source of knowledge. In a form or another, empiricism features in most philosophical tradition. In Western philosophy, empiricism boasts a long and distinguished list of followers in all ages; probably, the most fertile period for this trend happened during the early modern period, with the so-called British empiricists, whose rank includes authors of the caliber of John Locke and David Hume.
The Ethics of Lying
While lying can been seen as a threat to civil society, there seem to be several instances in which it seems to be the most intuitively moral option.
The Enlightenment
Enlightenment, or the Age of the Enlightened, was an intellectual movement most fertile between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in central Europe (France and Germany most distinctly) as well as in Russia and North America. The movement converged around the (at times unconditional) belief in the light of reason, regarded as the best gift to guide human agency, both theoretical and practical. The list of authors affiliated to some degree with the movement is particularly extensive and includes figures such as Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu, Smith, Kant, Franklin, and Jefferson. The work that most embodies the spirit of enlightenment is probably the Encyclopédie that d’Alembert and Diderot assembled between 1751 and 1772.
Ethics
Ethics is one of the major branches of philosophy and an ethical theory is part and parcel of all philosophies broadly conceived.
Plato and Aristotle on Women: Selected Quotes
Plato and Aristotle defended different views on the nature of women and of their role in society. This article collects some influential quotes on the topic.
Ancient Greek Philosophy
The time from which five great philosophical traditions originated: the Platonist, the Aristotelian, the Stoic, the Epicurean, and the Skeptic.
Who was Socrates?
The remakable story of the ugly little man who fascinated Athens and changed the world
Why Philosophy is Called 'Love of Wisdom'
Literally it means “love of wisdom.” But, really, philosophy begins in wonder. So, what characterizes philosophical wonder? How does one achieve it?
What Is Political Science?
Political science studies governments in all their forms and aspects, both theoretical and practical. Once a branch of philosophy, political science nowadays is typically considered a social science. The history of the discipline is virtually as long as that of humanity. Its roots in the Western tradition are typically individuated in the works of Plato and Aristotle.
Consequentialism
Consequentialism is perhaps the most developed view of ethics, according to which the ethical worth of an action is proportional to its consequences. In particular, consequentialism holds that among all the possible courses of action, an agent should pursue the one that, overall, brings about the greatest amount of good – or, in jargon, the one that maximizes good.
Liberalism
Liberalism's core values are expressed in terms of individual freedom and equality, democracy, capitalism, freedom of religion, and human rights.
Plato (427-347B.C.)
Who Is?: Plato is one of the most influential philosophers to date and the first Western thinker whose
How to Pick a Philosophy Undergraduate Program
Think about career prospects, specific areas of expertise of faculty and programs, and overall experience. Follow the links for more information.
The Nature-Culture Divide
Nature and culture are often seen as opposite ideas: what belongs to nature cannot be the result of human intervention and, on the other hand, cultural development is achieved against nature. However, this is by far the only take on the relationship between nature and culture. Studies in the evolutionary development of humans suggest that culture is part and parcel of the ecological niche within which our species thrived, thus rendering culture a chapter in the biological development of a species.
Arguments Against Relativism
A discussion of arguments against relativism, including concepts of truth, cultural perceptions, and more. Follow the links for further online readings.
René Descartes (1596-1650)
Descartes revolutionized scientific methodology, established a new conception of human nature, and linked algebra to geometry, among a host of other things.
Philosophical Quotes on Beauty
Beauty is one of the most intricate and fascinating topics of philosophical discussion. It has been taken up in relationship to a host of other subjects, such as truth, the good, the sublime, and pleasure. Here is a selection of quotes on beauty, divided into different themes.
Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527)
Who Is?: Niccolò Machiavelli was one of the most influential political theorists of Western philosophy.
Early Modern Philosophy
New theories of mind and matter, of the divine, and of civic society - among others - were proposed by figures such as Descartes, Locke, Hume, and Kant.
Metaphysics
Metaphysics is one of the core branches of philosophy and it is among the oldest ones. Metaphysics centers on the study of the most fundamental categories of reality and their relations, such as god, person, thing, event, property, causation. The question typical of this branch is, hence: “What is there, really?”
Best Online Philosophy Sources II: Blogs
Here find a selection of the most influential blogs in philosophy to date along with some additional useful sources like the Philosophical Gourmet Report.
The Idea of Nature
The idea of nature is one of the most widely employed in philosophy, and by the same token one of the most ill-defined. Authors such as Aristotle and relied on the concept of nature to explain the fundamental tenets of their views, without ever attempting to define the concept. Even in contemporary philosophy, the idea is oftentimes employed, in different forms. So, what is nature?
Sport Ethics
Sport ethics has come to be a foremost point of contact between philosophy, civil institutions, and society at large.
Beauty and Its Purposes
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >A Plea for Purposeless
Philosophical Quotes on Lying
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Lying is a complex
The Philosophy of Sex and Gender
Do you wonder whether sexual categories are natural or conventional? Explore this article for information and further online readings.
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
Immanuel Kant is one of the most important philosophers of Western tradition, and among the most systematics. He is best known for his transcendental philosophy, which he viewed as a revolution for the humanities comparable to the one brought forth by Copernicus in the sciences. He authored a vast number of texts, including the three critiques: Critique of Pure Reason(first published in 1781, then in a revised version in 1787), Critique of Practical Reason(1788), Critique of Judgment (1790).
Epistemology
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" > What do you know,
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Galileo Galilei was one of the protagonists of the scientific revolution, best known for his astronomical discoveries by means of a telescope (including sunspots, Jupiter’s satellites, and the phases of Venus), for his defense of heliocentrism, and and for his study of the natural laws regarding falling bodies. Galileo, however, gave key contributions also to the development of the modern scientific methodology; for this reason, he holds a special place in the philosophy of science and epistemology.
Logic
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" > Logic is one
Philosophy of Culture
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Culture and Human
Past, Present, and Future
Time is a central and classical theme in philosophy. It can be taken up from several angles, including epistemology (how do we know of the existence of a past or a future?), phenomenology (the time lived and perceived as opposed to external time), philosophy of language (the relevance of tenses in communication), philosophy of mind (e.g. time and memory), ethics (e.g., human life ought to be lived with the horizon of our death in view), social philosophy (the importance of recurring rituals in the structuring of a society, e.g. bells, New Year’s, 4th of July …) In this article we shall look at time from a metaphysical point of view.
The Philosophy of Humor
What is humor and how is it used among humans to enhance or hinder their relationships? Plenty of philosophers have asked this question, trying to come up with a theory of humor that could also separate such a state from mere laughter as well as good from bad quality humor.
Skepticism
Skepticism is precisely the attitude of doubting the reliability of one’s sources. Learn about the history of skepticism and the contemporary responses.
How to Write Philosophy?
How to write a solid philosophy paper? Which practices should you follow and which ones to avoid? Here are ten simple and general steps you can follow.
Arguments for Relativism
What reasons in favor of relativism can be brought forward? That people tend to have different views with respect to a same issue seems to be a platitude. Generational gaps, differences in social status, upbringing, religion, scientific perspectives can all contribute, at one time or other, to form contrasting opinions. Some people take these situations to provide a plethora of evidence to take a relativistic attitude towards the topic at hand. Of course not everyone agrees, affirming that relativism ought to be resisted. Needless to say, to a relativist the disagreement will just be additional evidence that she is on the right side of the debate.
Refutation by Counterexample-A Simple Way to...
How to prove arguments invalid using counterexamples
The Paradox of Tragedy
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >The Paradox How
Truth
Truth is a topic of major significance within any philosophy branch. Virtually every philosophers has to come to terms, in one way or another, with the nature of truth. Because of this, the array of positions regarding truth is as wide as that of philosophical schools and theories that have been proposed. In this article we will review the main positions on the nature of truth that characterize Western philosophy.
Humanism
A historical summation of the concept of humanism, including information about famous thinkers and the influence on western philosophy.
Environmental Ethics
Explore the issues behind biodiversity, wildlife management, ecological preservation, hunting practices, farming techniques, and food regulations.
Zen Philosophy Best Quotes
Zen is famous in the West thanks to its short, elliptical, yet intriguing proverbs and sayings. Here is a list of some famous Zen quotations.
Best Online Philosophy Sources IV: Journals
The advent of internet has had a tremendous effect not only for the dissemination of new forms of philosophical content such as philosophy radios and TVs, philosophy blogs, encyclopedias and bibliographies; also traditional forms of dissemination of scholarly content were deeply affected in a number of ways. Philosophy journals are no exception and we shall review the online sources to access them here.
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Who Is?: One of the most remarkable and controversial figures in modern politics and philosophy, Karl
Can Violence Be Just?
In some circumstances it is evident that violence is unjust. But some cases appear more debatable: can violence ever be justified?
Voltaire (1694-1778)
Voltaire’s writings are most famous for their advocacy of the autonomy of the individual and the State with respect to the church.
Ethical Arguments for Vegetarianism
Despite the difficulties in nailing down its details, vegetarianism seems to be backed up by a wealth of ethical arguments. For this reason, turning to a vegetarian diet seems to be one of the most pressing issues for our contemporary society. In this article we shall review the main reasons in favor of a vegetarian diet.
Philosophical Quotes on Violence
What is violence? And, accordingly, how should non-violence be understood? While I have written a number of articles on these and related topics, it is useful to look at how philosophers have synthesized their views on violence. Here is a selection of quotes, sorted out into topics.
Problems for Realism
Nominalism and Realism are the two most distinguished positions in western metaphysics dealing with the fundamental categories of reality. From the millenary debate between supporters of those two opposed camps spurred some of the most puzzling problems in metaphysics. Here we shall review the problems with realism, that are no less hard than the problems faced by nominalists.
Philosophy of Education
Though education is often thought in relation to the school system, educational processes aren't restricted to what is imparted in a school setting.
Should You Major in Philosophy?
Philosophy is one of the most spontaneous and profound activities humans can pursue; but, what can you do with a major in philosophy? Here are eleven reasons to choose the examined life .
Will the Future Resemble the Past? The Problem...
How do you know your next cup of coffee won't kill you? The problem of induction.
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1787)
Mary Wollstonecraft is best known for her philosophical and political insightful fervor, especially for her strenuous and lucid defense of the rights of women in society. This excerpt, taken from the third chapter of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, bears witness to a well-articulated picture.
What Is Verbal Violence?
Violence is a central concept for describing social relationships among humans, a concept loaded with ethical and political significance. Yet, what is violence? What forms can it take? Can human life be void of violence, and should it be? These are some of the hard questions that a theory of violence shall address.
"The Prince" by Niccolò Machiavelli
The Prince is the most read work by Florentine author Niccolò Machiavelli and one of the masterpieces of Western political thought. It is a small treatise composed of twenty-six chapters and aiming to educate a young adult about how to maintain power in a princedom regardless of the situation. Machiavelli’s precepts subverted Aristotelian ethics, turning what was the most regarded theory upside town.
Best Online Philosophy Sources III: Bibliograph...
You have to start a research in philosophy, but don’t know where to start from? Luckily, there are plenty of place on the net that can help you. Here is a guide to them.
Beauty and Love
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >All You Need Is
Philosophy of Mind
Philosophy of mind is a core area of philosophical research, which touches on a wide spectrum of themes, including: the nature of meaning (in conjunction with philosophy of language; the relationships between mind and body; the metaphysical status of the mind; self-consciousness; agency.
Free Will
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" > At the center
Desire
What is a desire? Such notion is often taken for granted in contemporary analytic philosophy. But to provide an answer to that question is all but straightforward. There are several important nodes to be untied before having a viable notion of desire. Let’s see seven of them.
Who Is Aristotle?
One of the most influential philosophers to date, Aristotle was a student of Plato and the teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings redefined or established an impressive variety of areas, including ethics, metaphysics, political philosophy, logic, epistemology, rhetoric, and tragedy.
What Does it Take to be Truly Honest?
While it may be tempting to define honesty as speaking the truth and abiding to the rules, this may turn out to be overtly simplistic. Telling the truth – the whole truth – is at times practically and theoretically impossible as well as morally not required or even wrong. Suppose your new partner asks you to be honest about what you have done over the past week, when you were apart: does this mean you’ll have to tell everything you have done?
Plato and Aristotle on the Family: Selected...
Plato and Aristotle have proposed radical views on the family, which influenced the debate on the topic in Western philosophy. This article collects some influential quotes on the topic.
Alternatives to Nominalism and Realism
Nominalism and Realism are the two most distinguished positions in western metaphysics dealing with the fundamental categories of reality. From the millenary debate between supporters of those two opposed camps spurred some of the most puzzling problems in metaphysics, both for nominalism and for realism. Because of those problems, some authors preferred to explore different routes. In this article we review three of them: universalism, trope theory, facts.
Philosophy of Sport
Whether the thought of it was implicit in your attitude or whether you actually took the time to spell it out, there is a great deal of philosophical substance in sport. Any sport, really. From team sports such as football and basketball to individual sports such as tennis and car racing, it is easy to devise a plethora of philosophical issues that span across most philosophical branches.
Definitions of Basic Concepts in Logic
Definitions of basic concepts in logic
Can Food Be Art?
Can food be art? This is a question that has received increasing attention over the past few decades in aesthetics; in this article we shall deal with the main reasons that have been brought forth against the palatability of gastronomic experiences being, in some instances, forms of ultimate artistic experiences.
Paradoxes of Eubulides
A large collection of paradoxes has been collected throughout the history of philosophy. Along with Zeno of Elea, the ancient Greek philosopher Eubulides of Miletus (fourth century B.C.) is perhaps the most re-known discoverer of logical paradoxes. To him are attributed four of the most discussed arguments: the liar’s paradox, the sorites paradox, the paradox of the hooded man, the paradox of the horned man.
David Hume (1711-1776)
David Hume is one of the most distinguished empiricists and skeptics of the Western tradition. A prominent figure in the history of early modern philosophy, according to some he is also the most important thinker to ever write in English...
Relativism
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" > Relativistic
Aesthetics
What is beauty? How to tell what is art from what art is not? These are the two fundamental questions if aesthetics. The first one concerns beauty in its most general form, thus not only artifacts, but also beauty as encountered in a landscape, a sunset, a stone, or a flower. What is it that makes something beautiful? Is beauty always one and the same property, exemplified by entities of radically different sorts?
Rhetoric and Exemplification in Philosophy
To what extent is the use of rhetorical figures in philosophical writing, such as metaphors and analogies, the mark of a weakness on the part of the author? Can we sort out different styles of philosophizing, such as analytic and continental, based on their use of rhetorical devices?
The Beautiful, The Sublime, and the Picturesque
The beautiful, the sublime, and the picturesque are three key concepts in aesthetics and philosophy of art. Together, they help mapping the variety of aesthetically significant experiences. The differentiation among the three concepts took place in seventeenth and eighteenth hundreds, and is still to these days of some significance, despite the difficulty in pinning down each of the three concepts.
On Being Cynical
A reader asked me whether it is acceptable, or just, or good of a human being cynical. This seems an interesting question to be entertained. I hence decided to write a piece on the topic ...
Prime Matter
Confronted with the problem of explaining change, Aquinas borrows from Aristotle three notions, that he calls principia (principles): matter, privation, form. Briefly put, form is whatever quality a substance possesses; the acquisition of such quality may have happened either at the very moment in which the substance was created, or during the course of its existence.
Intelligence: Philosophical Quotes
A selection of important quotes about intelligence, which bear significance for philosophical concerns.
Problems for Nominalism
Nominalism and Realism are the two most distinguished positions in western metaphysics dealing with the fundamental categories of reality. From the millenary debate between supporters of those two opposed camps spurred some of the most puzzling problems in metaphysics. Here we shall review the problems with nominalism, that are no less hard than the problems faced by realists.
The Analytic-Continental Split
The split between analytic and continental philosophers is perhaps one of the most distinctive traits of Western philosophy in the twentieth century. What is this all about and what relevance does it have to this date?
Philosophy of Language
Philosophy of language takes central place in contemporary philosophizing and its dealt in quite different manners in the analytic and continental traditions (roughly, the modern-day Anglo-Saxon and German-French philosophical schools respectively). In the analytic tradition, philosophy of language has focused on the characterization of meaning, on the explanation of language use and understanding, and on the relationship between language and reality. The continental tradition, instead, language has been seen an institution emerging within certain biological and socio-political structures. Champions of the first approach are authors such as Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, Paul Grice, and Willard Quine; the second approach was particularly influenced by the figures of Martin Heidegger, Hans-Georg Gadamer, and Paul Ricoeur.
Philosophy of Authenticity
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >"Be yourself.
Philosophical Quotes on Love
What is love? What is the relationship between love and beauty, or love and truth, or love and justice? While I’ve written about those topics, it is refreshing to read poignant quotes on them. Here is a compilation of some favorite passages on love.
ANNE CONWAY (1631-1679)
One of the Most Distinguished Women Philosophers: Anne Conway is probably the most prominent woman philosopher
The Cynics of Ancient Greece
A map of Ancient Greek philosophy usually lists four major schools, each of which can be traced back to Socrates: the Platonist, the Aristotelian, the Stoic, and the Epicurean. There is, however, a fifth school, which developed in conversation with Socrates’s teachings – the Cynic. Cynics are often unrecognized as forming a school, primarily because they had no specific place for meeting, but rather practiced their philosophical creeds in city streets, Athens being the first and foremost. Few teachings were transmitted in written form and what we are left with is instead a series of sayings and deeds, often in the form of anecdotes. A good proportion of the information that we have, moreover, is due to sources that looked at the cynics in a rather antagonistic fashion, which renders a reconstruction of the cynic views fated to be uncertain. Despite this, history records a fair number of prominent cynic figures, spanning across several generations; as I am inclined to regard of secondary importance, from a philosophical standpoint, whether a tradition developed within a formally established school or recorded its chief tenets in writing, I will refer to the cynics as forming a school. The reader should however be warned that the appellation is somewhat contentious.
Philosophical Quotes on Respect
To respect someone or something is to value that person or thing. What else can we say about respect to be able to teach it and to practice it? To start addressing such a need, I compiled a list of quotes on respect, which may be compared to quotes on equality and dignity. If you have any other passage you would like to share, please send in your suggestions!
Philosophy of Food
How can food lead to deep philosophical discussions? Find how it reflects on the ethical, political, social, artistic, identity-defining aspects of life.
Existentialism
First developed in early nineteenth-hundreds in France, from the work of Jean-Paul Sartre, existentialism it has since grown to become one of the most prominent philosophical movements. Owing much to the philosophies of Descartes and Edmund Husserl, existentialism centers on three key concepts: anguish, abandonment, and despair. To date, both religious and non-religious variants of existentialism have been defended.
John Locke (1632-1704)
Who Is?: John Locke is one of the most important figures in British empiricism and one of the main authors
Parmenides (VI-V century B.C.)
Parmenides is probably the first great philosopher of the Western canon. His philosophy seems to have embodied several of the distinctive traits of Ancient Greek philosophy, most notably the exclusive reliance on reason; Parmenides had a deep influence on Plato's and Aristotle's thinking, whose work can by and large be seen as a response to Parmenides’s.
Friedrich Nietzsche: Philosophy (1844-1900)
Trained as a classical philologist, Friedrich Nietzsche grew to become one of the most distinguished German philosophers and one of the most original voices in Western philosophy. His life was marked by significant health problems and stark contrasts with friends and colleagues. Although it is sometimes opportune also to differentiate different phases in his philosophical development, some recurring themes and ideas can be individuated. Five of those will be analyzed here.
Philosophy of Science
Philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy whose importance has extensively grown over the past century, in connection to the raising prestige and influence of disciplines such as physics, chemistry and – most lately – biology in understanding basic questions regarding the world as well as human identity and agency. Although its existence as a separate branch is relatively young and it is partially explainable also in terms of the specialization of academic research, issues in the philosophy of science have been debated throughout the whole history of philosophy, by authors such as Aristotle, Aquinas, Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, and Locke.
Self-Knowledge in a Cartesian Perspective
Descartes famously affirmed the centrality of the first-person in philosophy. Self-consciousness, to him, is the place from within our understanding of metaphysics and epistemology (and derivatively ethics, aesthetics, and all other philosophical endeavors) ultimately rest. I know that I exist, I am certain of it as I cannot fail to recognizing myself as thinking without actually being thinking; everything else follows.
Thales-The First Philosopher
Life and thought of Thales of Miletus, the first philosopher
The Varieties of Necessity
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" > Necessity and
Theodicy and the Problem of Evil
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >The Problem The
What Is Psychological Violence?
What is violence? What forms can it take? Can human life be void of violence, and should it be? Explore these ethical dilemmas and more in this article.
Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677)
Baruch Spinoza was a Dutch philosopher of Jewish descent, to date one of the most distinguished in the history of his land, and a prominent figure in early modern philosophy. He is most famous for having defended two doctrines. The first is a form of monism in metaphysics. The second is the rebuttal of any objective basis for good and evil in ethics.
Most Obscure Philosophy Quotes
Philosophers are not always known for their simplicity. Even to make a simple point, a reader may be taken for some convolute route. Here are some notable favorite examples, from classic philosophers or texts.
Philosophy as a Form of Literature
Is philosophy ever literature? That is, if you were to make a list of some valuable samples of literature, would you be inclined to include any philosophical text? If you would, which criteria should you follow for inclusion in the list?
Plato's argument for reincarnation and innate...
Does Plato's 'Meno' prove we have innate ideas?
Ethical Arguments for a Non-Vegetarian Diet
Vegetarianism seems to be backed up by a wealth of reasons, despite the difficulties in its formulation. At the same time, most people do not practice a vegetarian diet. It might well be, of course, that they are immoral – after all, who ever said that the majority of people is morally blameless? However, there may be also considerations leading to defend a non-vegetarian diet. In this article we shall review the main ones.
Philosophical Quotes on Food
Philosophy of food is an emerging branch in philosophy. Here is a list of quotes that are pertinent to it; if you happen to have additional suggestions, please do send them along!
Three Questions for The Conscious Vegetarian
Vegetarianism is regarded as a dietary style that is increasingly popular around the world. But, what does it take to be a vegetarian? In this article, I analyze vegetarian ideologies by rehearsing three questions.
Friedrich Nietzsche: Life (1844-1900)
A central figure of modern philosophy, Friedrich Nietzsche was trained in classical philology. His production – in comparison to its relevance – was concentrated in an extraordinarily brief time span, between 1869 and 1888. Known for his stark contrasts with friends and colleagues, most famous the controversy with fellow composer Richard Wagner, as well as for his fragile health, Nietzsche had a life of turmoil.
Machiavelli's Best Quotes
Niccolò Machiavelli is a central intellectual figure in Renaissance philosophy. Although he worked mainly as a statesman, he was also a notable historian, dramatist, poet, and philosopher. His works contain some of the most memorable quotes in political science. Here follows a selection of those that are most representative for philosophers.
Philosophy of Art
How to tell an artwork from what is a work of art is not? What is it that makes an object, or a gesture, a work of art? Those questions lie at the core of Philosophy of Art, a major subfield of Aesthetics. Let’s see how they may be answered.
Why Are Humans Violent?
We may be shy or even ashamed to admit it, but violence is one of the central modalities through which humans relate to each other. Not only we are violent against strangers or acquaintances, but we are often violent also against ourselves. Why is it so? Why is violence one of the main modalities through which we relate to the world?
Philosophical Quotes on Art
How to tell an artwork from what is a work of art is not? What is it that makes an object, or a gesture, a work of art? Those questions lie at the core of Philosophy of Art, a major subfield of Aesthetics. Here is a collection of quotes on the subject.
Truth v Validity
Explanation of a crucial logical distinction
"Meditations on First Philosophy" (1641)
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Descartes 's major
6 Good Reasons to Study Logic
Reasons to study logic
The West
The idea of a West was initially also a geographic idea, when first used by the ancient Greeks to indicate the societal structure and culture of those societies that stood West of Persia. Later adopted also to describe the societies falling under the Roman influence, it has since been utilized by early and late medieval Christians, Europeans, Americans, and those societies that saw themselves in association with the latter two. The Western world nowadays can be identified in terms of some key values, structures, and principles, including capitalism, liberalism, democracy, human rights, and the Group of Eight.
Philosophical Quotes on the Sublime
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >The Sublime The
Philosophical Quotes on Sex
Sex and gender are among the most debated philosophical topics of the past few decades, and rightly so, as the conceptions of these two notions have changed – I would say matured – extensively. In this piece I shall collect some of the most remarkable statements about sex made by contemporary philosophers. I hope you enjoy them and, if you have any suggestion, please don’t hesitate to send it in.
Epicurus (341-270B.C.)
Epicurus was a defendant of ancient atomism, the view according to which all that there is to spatio-temporal reality are indivisible parts of matter ad void. Those indivisible parts are not perceivable by the eyes and they are in constant movement. Everything that we perceive through the senses is made out of atoms and all body movements and sensations have to be explained in terms of interaction between atoms as well as voids.
Philosophy vs Lifestyle
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Best Online Philosophy Sources I: Encyclopedias...
Since the advent of internet, philosophy sources on the web have grown steadily both in number and varieties. Nowadays, having an online profile and being up to date with regard to the latest debates, trends, and news on the subject has become a (almost obligatory) routine for professional philosophers, aspiring ones, and amateurs. Here we shall trace a map of philosophical encyclopedias as well as philosophy radios and TVs. Philosophy blogs, journals, and bibliographies will be treated separately.
The Liar Paradox: Solutions
That certain sentences involving liars are paradoxical has been known for a long time. Perhaps the earliest written formulation of the liar paradox within Western philosophy dates back to the Ancient Greek period: it is due to Eubulides of Miletus, author of several other important logical paradoxes too. If a person says that she is a liar, is what she’s saying true or false? Suppose it’s true: then the person is not a liar; but then it’s actually false that she is a liar. If instead what the person is saying is false, then she is a liar; but then what she is saying is true. Either way, we reach conclusions that seem – literally – incredible; that’s the mark of paradoxicality. In this article we will concentrate on the solutions to the paradox.
Philosophy of Conversion
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The Great Chain of Being
Humans tend to like rankings, perhaps out of their adamant competitiveness, perhaps out of their eye for classification, systematization, and domination. One of the most pervasive rankings is that of kinds of being; this is possibly the ranking of all rankings, that on the basis of which anything that there is ought to be first and foremost considered. It is hard to find civilizations that did not adopt one version or another of such ranking. In the Western tradition, it is often referred to as the great chain of being, following suggestions of Plato and Aristotle and the title of a 1936 book by Arthur Lovejoy.
Philosophical Quotes on Identity
A selection of important quotes about identity, which bear significance also for philosophical concerns.
Violence Against Oneself
Human beings do violence to themselves in different forms and for a variety of reasons that are often hard to pin down. Physical violence, in the guise of corporal punishment or starvation are one form of violence that humans inflict to themselves (famous the images of the Medieval monks flagellating their bodies); yet, humans often take courses of action that do inflict themselves psychological violence, as when they decide to embark on a solo sailing tour of the earth or on a solo expedition to the North Pole. What do those sorts of actions tell us about ourselves? Is violence inflicted against ourselves a form of sin?
Philosophy of Biology
Philosophy of biology is that branch of philosophy dealing with the major issues arising from biological sciences, such as the proper understanding of evolutionary processes, the demarcation between living and non-living entities, the nature of species and – more generally – of biological taxa.
Philosophy of Sport: Quotes
There is a great deal of philosophical substance in sport. Any sport, really. From team sports such as football and basketball to individual sports such as tennis and car racing, it is easy to devise a plethora of philosophical issues that span across most philosophical branches. Here is a selection of the most poignant quotes related to sport that highlight its philosophical significance.
Beauty and Truth
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Jorge Luis Borges's Best Philosophical Quotes
Jorge Louís Borges (1899-1986) was one of the greatest writers of the past century and, to many, he was the most prominent Argentinian writer. Not only, however, Borges was an exemplar writer, he was also one of the most acute thinkers of the past century, so much as that his work is worth of being closely studied also from a philosophical point of view. In this article, I collected some of the most prominent passages from his writings that stimulate philosophical reflection; the list could keep growing, and if you have any suggestion you are most welcome to send it in!
Homo Taxonomicus
Some metaphysicians – the Nominalists – hold that all that there is, really, are particular entities. And when they say particular, they do not generically imply that everything is kind of unique. What they mean is that everything is heterogeneous to everything else. No two things are the same and no two things can possibly be the same. The universe is structured in accordance to a metaphysical law of particularity.
Access to Knowledge: Philosophy Online Journals
The issue of access to culture is one of the most poignant and complex ones of our times. On one hand, many believe that intellectual property rights should be recognized and enforced; we do tend to teach this also to our students, when we suggest that plagiarism is not simply unethical, but illegal or against some widespread societal norms, which are enforced also in schools. On the other hand, however, we may wish that property rights carry no economic benefit and burden: songs, novels, scientific discoveries shall be made available at no cost and on a platform that is in principle accessible by anyone. Everyone has a right to participate in cultural life.
Philosophical Quotes on Dignity
What is dignity? This is by no means an easy question to answer. And yet, dignity seems such an important notion when thinking of our own selves. To start brainstorming about this subtle topic, I compiled a list of significant quotes on dignity. Please send in more suggestions if you come across them!
The Four Conditions of Lying and Their Troubles
Lies are peculiar sorts of entities: while we often encounter them during our day, be it in the media or an acquaintance, they are actually hard to pin down. With time, scholars have individuated four standard conditions that seem to be required for lying. It turns out that each of them is problematic. Let ‘s see why.
Philosophical Quotes on Equality
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Lewis Carroll: Philosophical Quotes
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Pleasure
Pleasure occupies a central role in the history of philosophy; on pleasure have been based some of the most important philosophical theories, and reflection on pleasure has kept busy the most brilliant philosophical minds. Moreover, each human being is called to deal with her own longing for pleasures of one sort or another. So, what is pleasure and what key philosophical issues does it give rise to?
Cheerfulness and Happiness
What’s the difference between cheerfulness and happiness? Trying to offer an answer to this question may help to shed light on a number of important aspects of ethics, politics, and practical living. In this article I will offer a few remarks on how a philosophy encompassing both cheerfulness and happiness may be developed.
Philosophical Quotes on Race
The philosophy of race has been a fertile terrain of dispute over the past few decades. A variety of positions have been defended, ranging from those defending a more biologically-loaded characterization of racial categories to those instead endorsing a constructivist, or a skeptical, attitude towards races. Here I collected a number of the most exemplificative quotes on the topic; if you happen to have other ones to suggest, please do not hesitate!
Marcus Aurelius (121-180 A.D.)
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Alan Turing: Work (1912-1952)
One of the most brilliant and influential minds of twentieth century, Alan Turing was a British mathematician and logician, a father of computer science and artificial intelligence, who also served as cryptanalyst during World War II and for some time afterwards. His life was anything but ordinary. Though his affiliation was never with philosophy departments, some of his work has inspired lively debates in philosophy of mind and logic.
Chuck Norris and Philosophy
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >The eccentric
Food and Art: Three Encounters
Can food be art? This question may be declined in two ways: the first, centered on art objects, asks whether there are any edible items that can be regarded as works of art; the other, which I regard as more sound, asks whether there are gastronomic experiences that may be regarded as artistic experiences. Of course, the way the question is answered will depend also on the specific aesthetic perspective we assume; here, however, I wish to draw a distinction between three forms of ways in which art can encounter food, following a parallel distinction drawn by Nicola Perullo.
The Limits of Ethical Consumerism
Ethical consumerism has become a central concept for shoppers around the world. Labels such as Fair Trade and organic are just the tip of the iceberg of a specialized market that kept growing over the years and expanding to the most remote sectors of commerce. Needless to say, however, being an ethical consumer is not that easy. Articles abound detailing the unreliability of labels, or the fact that labels do not convey sufficient or relevant information regarding products that we consume. More hard-nosed criticisms of ethical consumerism can be raised, however. In this article I will present the three that strike me as most compelling.
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