Philosophy: Most Popular Articles
The nature of beauty is one of the most fascinating riddles of philosophy. Is beauty universal? How do we know it? How can we predispose ourselves to embrace it? Nearly every major philosopher has engaged with these questions and their cognates, including the great figures of ancient Greek philosophy such as Plato and Aristotle.
The choice of a philosophy graduate program can be extremely difficult. In the U.S.A. alone, there are over one hundred of well-established departments granting graduate degrees (M.A., M.Phil., or Ph.D.) Needless to say, Canada, the U.K., Australia, France, Spain, Holland, Belgium, Germany, and a few other countries have graduate programs that are well-regarded too. How to decide where is most suitable to study?
What is specific about philosophical reading? Which tips and guidelines can you follow to improve your understanding of philosophical texts? How to use philosophy books to enhance your philosophical curiosity and the one of your peers?
René Descartes (1596-1650) famously produced some original arguments to prove God's existence. The arguments played a key role in his Meditations on First Philosophy, as they allowed him to conclude that something beyond himself existed. Here goes a reconstruction of the arguments, as found in the third meditation.
Nominalism and Realism are the two most distinguished positions in western metaphysics dealing with the fundamental structure of reality. According to realists claim that all entities divide up into two major groups: particulars and universals; Nominalists instead argue that there are only particulars.
The time from which five great philosophical traditions originated: the Platonist, the Aristotelian, the Stoic, the Epicurean, and the Skeptic.
Empiricism is the philosophical stance according to which the senses are the ultimate source of human knowledge. It rivals rationalism according to which reason is the ultimate source of knowledge. In a form or another, empiricism features in most philosophical tradition. In Western philosophy, empiricism boasts a long and distinguished list of followers in all ages; probably, the most fertile period for this trend happened during the early modern period, with the so-called British empiricists, whose rank includes authors of the caliber of John Locke and David Hume.
Literally it means “love of wisdom.” But, really, philosophy begins in wonder. So, what characterizes philosophical wonder? How does one achieve it?
Rationalism is the philosophical stance according to which reason is the ultimate source of human knowledge. It rivals empiricism according to which the senses suffice in justifying knowledge. In a form or another, rationalism features in most philosophical tradition; in the Western one, it boasts a long and distinguished list of followers, including Plato, Descartes, and Kant.
There are plenty of hilarious philosophy jokes out there, some of which could easily be incorporated as teaching materials, both for children and adults.
The idea of a self plays a central role in philosophy. Three main types of views of the self are explored in this brief introduction.
What is friendship? How many types of friendship can we recognize and in what degree shall we seek each of them? Several of the greatest philosophers have addressed those questions and neighboring ones. Let’s see some illustrations of their work.
A discussion of arguments against relativism, including concepts of truth, cultural perceptions, and more. Follow the links for further online readings.
Ethics is one of the major branches of philosophy and an ethical theory is part and parcel of all philosophies broadly conceived.
While lying can been seen as a threat to civil society, there seem to be several instances in which it seems to be the most intuitively moral option.
Who Is?: Plato is one of the most influential philosophers to date and the first Western thinker whose
Philosophy is one of the most spontaneous and profound activities humans can pursue; but, what can you do with a major in philosophy? Here are eleven reasons to choose the examined life .
Who Is?: Niccolò Machiavelli was one of the most influential political theorists of Western philosophy.
Political science studies governments in all their forms and aspects, both theoretical and practical. Once a branch of philosophy, political science nowadays is typically considered a social science. The history of the discipline is virtually as long as that of humanity. Its roots in the Western tradition are typically individuated in the works of Plato and Aristotle.
Consequentialism is perhaps the most developed view of ethics, according to which the ethical worth of an action is proportional to its consequences. In particular, consequentialism holds that among all the possible courses of action, an agent should pursue the one that, overall, brings about the greatest amount of good – or, in jargon, the one that maximizes good.
Beauty is one of the most intricate and fascinating topics of philosophical discussion. It has been taken up in relationship to a host of other subjects, such as truth, the good, the sublime, and pleasure. Here is a selection of quotes on beauty, divided into different themes.
Think about career prospects, specific areas of expertise of faculty and programs, and overall experience. Follow the links for more information.
Metaphysics is one of the core branches of philosophy and it is among the oldest ones. Metaphysics centers on the study of the most fundamental categories of reality and their relations, such as god, person, thing, event, property, causation. The question typical of this branch is, hence: “What is there, really?”
How to write a solid philosophy paper? Which practices should you follow and which ones to avoid? Here are ten simple and general steps you can follow.
New theories of mind and matter, of the divine, and of civic society - among others - were proposed by figures such as Descartes, Locke, Hume, and Kant.
What reasons in favor of relativism can be brought forward? That people tend to have different views with respect to a same issue seems to be a platitude. Generational gaps, differences in social status, upbringing, religion, scientific perspectives can all contribute, at one time or other, to form contrasting opinions. Some people take these situations to provide a plethora of evidence to take a relativistic attitude towards the topic at hand. Of course not everyone agrees, affirming that relativism ought to be resisted. Needless to say, to a relativist the disagreement will just be additional evidence that she is on the right side of the debate.
Though education is often thought in relation to the school system, educational processes aren't restricted to what is imparted in a school setting.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" > What do you know,
Parmenides is probably the first great philosopher of the Western canon. His philosophy seems to have embodied several of the distinctive traits of Ancient Greek philosophy, most notably the exclusive reliance on reason; Parmenides had a deep influence on Plato's and Aristotle's thinking, whose work can by and large be seen as a response to Parmenides’s.
Whether the thought of it was implicit in your attitude or whether you actually took the time to spell it out, there is a great deal of philosophical substance in sport. Any sport, really. From team sports such as football and basketball to individual sports such as tennis and car racing, it is easy to devise a plethora of philosophical issues that span across most philosophical branches.
While it may be tempting to define honesty as speaking the truth and abiding to the rules, this may turn out to be overtly simplistic. Telling the truth – the whole truth – is at times practically and theoretically impossible as well as morally not required or even wrong. Suppose your new partner asks you to be honest about what you have done over the past week, when you were apart: does this mean you’ll have to tell everything you have done?
The idea of nature is one of the most widely employed in philosophy, and by the same token one of the most ill-defined. Authors such as Aristotle and relied on the concept of nature to explain the fundamental tenets of their views, without ever attempting to define the concept. Even in contemporary philosophy, the idea is oftentimes employed, in different forms. So, what is nature?
A historical summation of the concept of humanism, including information about famous thinkers and the influence on western philosophy.
Sport ethics has come to be a foremost point of contact between philosophy, civil institutions, and society at large.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Culture and Human
Descartes revolutionized scientific methodology, established a new conception of human nature, and linked algebra to geometry, among a host of other things.
What is violence? What forms can it take? Can human life be void of violence, and should it be? Explore these ethical dilemmas and more in this article.
One of the most influential philosophers to date, Aristotle was a student of Plato and the teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings redefined or established an impressive variety of areas, including ethics, metaphysics, political philosophy, logic, epistemology, rhetoric, and tragedy.
In some circumstances it is evident that violence is unjust. But some cases appear more debatable: can violence ever be justified?
Voltaire’s writings are most famous for their advocacy of the autonomy of the individual and the State with respect to the church.
Liberalism's core values are expressed in terms of individual freedom and equality, democracy, capitalism, freedom of religion, and human rights.
Enlightenment, or the Age of the Enlightened, was an intellectual movement most fertile between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in central Europe (France and Germany most distinctly) as well as in Russia and North America. The movement converged around the (at times unconditional) belief in the light of reason, regarded as the best gift to guide human agency, both theoretical and practical. The list of authors affiliated to some degree with the movement is particularly extensive and includes figures such as Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu, Smith, Kant, Franklin, and Jefferson. The work that most embodies the spirit of enlightenment is probably the Encyclopédie that d’Alembert and Diderot assembled between 1751 and 1772.
Nature and culture are often seen as opposite ideas: what belongs to nature cannot be the result of human intervention and, on the other hand, cultural development is achieved against nature. However, this is by far the only take on the relationship between nature and culture. Studies in the evolutionary development of humans suggest that culture is part and parcel of the ecological niche within which our species thrived, thus rendering culture a chapter in the biological development of a species.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" > Logic is one
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >All You Need Is
Immanuel Kant is one of the most important philosophers of Western tradition, and among the most systematics. He is best known for his transcendental philosophy, which he viewed as a revolution for the humanities comparable to the one brought forth by Copernicus in the sciences. He authored a vast number of texts, including the three critiques: Critique of Pure Reason(first published in 1781, then in a revised version in 1787), Critique of Practical Reason(1788), Critique of Judgment (1790).
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >A Plea for Purposeless
Violence is a central concept for describing social relationships among humans, a concept loaded with ethical and political significance. Yet, what is violence? What forms can it take? Can human life be void of violence, and should it be? These are some of the hard questions that a theory of violence shall address.
Truth is a topic of major significance within any philosophy branch. Virtually every philosophers has to come to terms, in one way or another, with the nature of truth. Because of this, the array of positions regarding truth is as wide as that of philosophical schools and theories that have been proposed. In this article we will review the main positions on the nature of truth that characterize Western philosophy.
Philosophy of mind is a core area of philosophical research, which touches on a wide spectrum of themes, including: the nature of meaning (in conjunction with philosophy of language; the relationships between mind and body; the metaphysical status of the mind; self-consciousness; agency.
Mary Wollstonecraft is best known for her philosophical and political insightful fervor, especially for her strenuous and lucid defense of the rights of women in society. This excerpt, taken from the third chapter of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, bears witness to a well-articulated picture.
David Hume is one of the most distinguished empiricists and skeptics of the Western tradition. A prominent figure in the history of early modern philosophy, according to some he is also the most important thinker to ever write in English...
That certain sentences involving liars are paradoxical has been known for a long time. Perhaps the earliest written formulation of the liar paradox within Western philosophy dates back to the Ancient Greek period: it is due to Eubulides of Miletus, author of several other important logical paradoxes too. If a person says that she is a liar, is what she’s saying true or false? Suppose it’s true: then the person is not a liar; but then it’s actually false that she is a liar. If instead what the person is saying is false, then she is a liar; but then what she is saying is true. Either way, we reach conclusions that seem – literally – incredible; that’s the mark of paradoxicality. In this article we will concentrate on the solutions to the paradox.
Galileo Galilei was one of the protagonists of the scientific revolution, best known for his astronomical discoveries by means of a telescope (including sunspots, Jupiter’s satellites, and the phases of Venus), for his defense of heliocentrism, and and for his study of the natural laws regarding falling bodies. Galileo, however, gave key contributions also to the development of the modern scientific methodology; for this reason, he holds a special place in the philosophy of science and epistemology.
Skepticism is precisely the attitude of doubting the reliability of one’s sources. Learn about the history of skepticism and the contemporary responses.
Plato and Aristotle have proposed radical views on the family, which influenced the debate on the topic in Western philosophy. This article collects some influential quotes on the topic.
Despite the difficulties in nailing down its details, vegetarianism seems to be backed up by a wealth of ethical arguments. For this reason, turning to a vegetarian diet seems to be one of the most pressing issues for our contemporary society. In this article we shall review the main reasons in favor of a vegetarian diet.
Nominalism and Realism are the two most distinguished positions in western metaphysics dealing with the fundamental categories of reality. From the millenary debate between supporters of those two opposed camps spurred some of the most puzzling problems in metaphysics. Here we shall review the problems with nominalism, that are no less hard than the problems faced by realists.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" > Relativistic
Nominalism and Realism are the two most distinguished positions in western metaphysics dealing with the fundamental categories of reality. From the millenary debate between supporters of those two opposed camps spurred some of the most puzzling problems in metaphysics. Here we shall review the problems with realism, that are no less hard than the problems faced by nominalists.
Here find a selection of the most influential blogs in philosophy to date along with some additional useful sources like the Philosophical Gourmet Report.
Who Is?: John Locke is one of the most important figures in British empiricism and one of the main authors
We may be shy or even ashamed to admit it, but violence is one of the central modalities through which humans relate to each other. Not only we are violent against strangers or acquaintances, but we are often violent also against ourselves. Why is it so? Why is violence one of the main modalities through which we relate to the world?
Time is a central and classical theme in philosophy. It can be taken up from several angles, including epistemology (how do we know of the existence of a past or a future?), phenomenology (the time lived and perceived as opposed to external time), philosophy of language (the relevance of tenses in communication), philosophy of mind (e.g. time and memory), ethics (e.g., human life ought to be lived with the horizon of our death in view), social philosophy (the importance of recurring rituals in the structuring of a society, e.g. bells, New Year’s, 4th of July …) In this article we shall look at time from a metaphysical point of view.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >"Be yourself.
Zen is famous in the West thanks to its short, elliptical, yet intriguing proverbs and sayings. Here is a list of some famous Zen quotations.
The Prince is the most read work by Florentine author Niccolò Machiavelli and one of the masterpieces of Western political thought. It is a small treatise composed of twenty-six chapters and aiming to educate a young adult about how to maintain power in a princedom regardless of the situation. Machiavelli’s precepts subverted Aristotelian ethics, turning what was the most regarded theory upside town.
How to tell an artwork from what is a work of art is not? What is it that makes an object, or a gesture, a work of art? Those questions lie at the core of Philosophy of Art, a major subfield of Aesthetics. Here is a collection of quotes on the subject.
How can food lead to deep philosophical discussions? Find how it reflects on the ethical, political, social, artistic, identity-defining aspects of life.
Can food be art? This is a question that has received increasing attention over the past few decades in aesthetics; in this article we shall deal with the main reasons that have been brought forth against the palatability of gastronomic experiences being, in some instances, forms of ultimate artistic experiences.
What is humor and how is it used among humans to enhance or hinder their relationships? Plenty of philosophers have asked this question, trying to come up with a theory of humor that could also separate such a state from mere laughter as well as good from bad quality humor.
Explore the issues behind biodiversity, wildlife management, ecological preservation, hunting practices, farming techniques, and food regulations.
Marcus Aurelius was a Roman Emperor. He lived between 121 and 180 A.D. and covered the role of Emperor between 161 and 180. His reign was characterized by a sequel of unfortunate circumstances, such as a malicious plague – known as the Plague of Galen – that spread in the empire between 165 and 180. Aurelius had also to fight wars throughout his entire reign, including those against the Marcomanni, the Quadi, the Sarmatians, and the Germanic tribes. It was during the campaign in Greece between 170 and 180 that he wrote his philosophical masterpiece, the Meditations. Here is a collection of favorite quotes from the book; if you have any additional you would like to see featured, please do send it in!
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Lying is a complex
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Descartes 's major
Do you wonder whether sexual categories are natural or conventional? Explore this article for information and further online readings.
Epicurus was a defendant of ancient atomism, the view according to which all that there is to spatio-temporal reality are indivisible parts of matter ad void. Those indivisible parts are not perceivable by the eyes and they are in constant movement. Everything that we perceive through the senses is made out of atoms and all body movements and sensations have to be explained in terms of interaction between atoms as well as voids.
The philosophy of hunting is a subfield of the philosophy of food, which deals most importantly with the ethical, environmental, and evolutionary aspects of the practice of hunting. Among its central questions: can hunting ever be regarded as morally good? Which methods for hunting are most ethical? Is hunting for sport rather than for food, e.g. fox hunting, ever morally permissible? Can hunting better reconnect us with wildlife? Can hunting shed light on our evolutionary past?
Niccolò Machiavelli is a central intellectual figure in Renaissance philosophy. Although he worked mainly as a statesman, he was also a notable historian, dramatist, poet, and philosopher. His works contain some of the most memorable quotes in political science. Here follows a selection of those that are most representative for philosophers.
Baruch Spinoza was a Dutch philosopher of Jewish descent, to date one of the most distinguished in the history of his land, and a prominent figure in early modern philosophy. He is most famous for having defended two doctrines. The first is a form of monism in metaphysics. The second is the rebuttal of any objective basis for good and evil in ethics.
What is beauty? How to tell what is art from what art is not? These are the two fundamental questions if aesthetics. The first one concerns beauty in its most general form, thus not only artifacts, but also beauty as encountered in a landscape, a sunset, a stone, or a flower. What is it that makes something beautiful? Is beauty always one and the same property, exemplified by entities of radically different sorts?
The advent of internet has had a tremendous effect not only for the dissemination of new forms of philosophical content such as philosophy radios and TVs, philosophy blogs, encyclopedias and bibliographies; also traditional forms of dissemination of scholarly content were deeply affected in a number of ways. Philosophy journals are no exception and we shall review the online sources to access them here.
Is philosophy ever literature? That is, if you were to make a list of some valuable samples of literature, would you be inclined to include any philosophical text? If you would, which criteria should you follow for inclusion in the list?
To respect someone or something is to value that person or thing. What else can we say about respect to be able to teach it and to practice it? To start addressing such a need, I compiled a list of quotes on respect, which may be compared to quotes on equality and dignity. If you have any other passage you would like to share, please send in your suggestions!
What is the relationship between beauty and justice? Should we treat all those things and events that appear beautiful, but conflict with some principle of morality, as non-beautiful because of such a conflict?
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" > At the center
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >The Paradox How
Philosophers are not always known for their simplicity. Even to make a simple point, a reader may be taken for some convolute route. Here are some notable favorite examples, from classic philosophers or texts.
Vegetarianism seems to be backed up by a wealth of reasons, despite the difficulties in its formulation. At the same time, most people do not practice a vegetarian diet. It might well be, of course, that they are immoral – after all, who ever said that the majority of people is morally blameless? However, there may be also considerations leading to defend a non-vegetarian diet. In this article we shall review the main ones.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >The Problem The
One of the Most Distinguished Women Philosophers: Anne Conway is probably the most prominent woman philosopher
Lies are peculiar sorts of entities: while we often encounter them during our day, be it in the media or an acquaintance, they are actually hard to pin down. With time, scholars have individuated four standard conditions that seem to be required for lying. It turns out that each of them is problematic. Let ‘s see why.
First developed in early nineteenth-hundreds in France, from the work of Jean-Paul Sartre, existentialism it has since grown to become one of the most prominent philosophical movements. Owing much to the philosophies of Descartes and Edmund Husserl, existentialism centers on three key concepts: anguish, abandonment, and despair. To date, both religious and non-religious variants of existentialism have been defended.
A reader asked me whether it is acceptable, or just, or good of a human being cynical. This seems an interesting question to be entertained. I hence decided to write a piece on the topic ...
What is love? What is the relationship between love and beauty, or love and truth, or love and justice? While I’ve written about those topics, it is refreshing to read poignant quotes on them. Here is a compilation of some favorite passages on love.
The paradoxicality of certain sentences involving liars has been known for a long time, and in Western philosophy it dates back to the Ancient Greek period. In this article we will concentrate on the formulation of the paradox and some of its implications for the concept of truth, rather than its solutions.
Who Is?: One of the most remarkable and controversial figures in modern politics and philosophy, Karl
Philosophy of food is an emerging branch in philosophy. Here is a list of quotes that are pertinent to it; if you happen to have additional suggestions, please do send them along!
Philosophy of language takes central place in contemporary philosophizing and its dealt in quite different manners in the analytic and continental traditions (roughly, the modern-day Anglo-Saxon and German-French philosophical schools respectively). In the analytic tradition, philosophy of language has focused on the characterization of meaning, on the explanation of language use and understanding, and on the relationship between language and reality. The continental tradition, instead, language has been seen an institution emerging within certain biological and socio-political structures. Champions of the first approach are authors such as Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, Paul Grice, and Willard Quine; the second approach was particularly influenced by the figures of Martin Heidegger, Hans-Georg Gadamer, and Paul Ricoeur.
Zeno’s philosophy is one of the clearest examples of the power accorded to rational argumentation by Ancient Greek philosophers: by reasoning alone (hence without relying on any specific observation) humans can prove that the world has a certain structure. This is a radical methodology, which by and large diverges from the methods of inquiry employed in contemporary science.
The split between analytic and continental philosophers is perhaps one of the most distinctive traits of Western philosophy in the twentieth century. What is this all about and what relevance does it have to this date?
To what extent is the use of rhetorical figures in philosophical writing, such as metaphors and analogies, the mark of a weakness on the part of the author? Can we sort out different styles of philosophizing, such as analytic and continental, based on their use of rhetorical devices?
Unconventionality is cool. Or, at least, we tend to believe that from unconventional choices come important societal changes, and we like that. But, clearly, not all unconventional behavior is to be cherished. Thus, how to tell good from bad unconventionality? And, in first instance, what is unconventionality?
Who Is?: Jean-Jacques Rousseau is a central figure in early modern philosophy, and one of the most influential
A selection of important quotes about intelligence, which bear significance for philosophical concerns.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a German mathematician and philosopher, one of the greatest minds of Early Modern Philosophy and one of the most remarkable in the Western philosophical tradition. He is most famous for having developed the infinitesimal calculus (independently of Isaac Newton), for his doctrine according to which ours is the best of all possible worlds, and for his metaphysics of monads.
Before drafting a philosophy paper, there are a few things to bear in mind. First of all, in philosophy, clarity trumps style. The fun part is to make all the pieces fit neatly together. If you feel confused, take a break. But the most certain path to clarity is avoiding certain mistakes. This can be easily done. Here are nine of the most common ones.
Humans tend to like rankings, perhaps out of their adamant competitiveness, perhaps out of their eye for classification, systematization, and domination. One of the most pervasive rankings is that of kinds of being; this is possibly the ranking of all rankings, that on the basis of which anything that there is ought to be first and foremost considered. It is hard to find civilizations that did not adopt one version or another of such ranking. In the Western tradition, it is often referred to as the great chain of being, following suggestions of Plato and Aristotle and the title of a 1936 book by Arthur Lovejoy.
There is a great deal of philosophical substance in sport. Any sport, really. From team sports such as football and basketball to individual sports such as tennis and car racing, it is easy to devise a plethora of philosophical issues that span across most philosophical branches. Here is a selection of the most poignant quotes related to sport that highlight its philosophical significance.
It is ordinary to talk about waves of the ocean, sound waves, waves of electrons, and such; on the other hand, they pose some interesting metaphysical puzzles. We shall be concerned with wind waves only in this article. And, for a start, what is a wind wave?
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >The Sublime The
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >An Epistemic Conundrum
A selection of important quotes about identity, which bear significance also for philosophical concerns.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >British writer
Trained as a classical philologist, Friedrich Nietzsche grew to become one of the most distinguished German philosophers and one of the most original voices in Western philosophy. His life was marked by significant health problems and stark contrasts with friends and colleagues. Although it is sometimes opportune also to differentiate different phases in his philosophical development, some recurring themes and ideas can be individuated. Five of those will be analyzed here.
The sublime, the picturesque, and the beautiful are of philosophical importance, especially for those working aesthetics. The first two of them, however, are
Athletic competitions have raised puzzling metaphysical interrogatives. Among the most poignant, the truth of what happens during a competition, the identity of a team, and the boundaries of a sportive event. Let’s address them in order.
Since the advent of internet, philosophy sources on the web have grown steadily both in number and varieties. Nowadays, having an online profile and being up to date with regard to the latest debates, trends, and news on the subject has become a (almost obligatory) routine for professional philosophers, aspiring ones, and amateurs. Here we shall trace a map of philosophical encyclopedias as well as philosophy radios and TVs. Philosophy blogs, journals, and bibliographies will be treated separately.
Human beings do violence to themselves in different forms and for a variety of reasons that are often hard to pin down. Physical violence, in the guise of corporal punishment or starvation are one form of violence that humans inflict to themselves (famous the images of the Medieval monks flagellating their bodies); yet, humans often take courses of action that do inflict themselves psychological violence, as when they decide to embark on a solo sailing tour of the earth or on a solo expedition to the North Pole. What do those sorts of actions tell us about ourselves? Is violence inflicted against ourselves a form of sin?
A large collection of paradoxes has been collected throughout the history of philosophy. Along with Zeno of Elea, the ancient Greek philosopher Eubulides of Miletus (fourth century B.C.) is perhaps the most re-known discoverer of logical paradoxes. To him are attributed four of the most discussed arguments: the liar’s paradox, the sorites paradox, the paradox of the hooded man, the paradox of the horned man.
Violence is a central concept for describing social relationships among humans, a concept loaded with ethical and political significance. Yet, what is violence? What forms can it take? Can human life be void of violence, and should it be? These are some of the hard questions that a theory of violence shall address. In this article we shall address physical violence, which will be kept distinct from psychological violence and verbal violence. Other questions, such as Why are humans violent?, or Can violence ever be just?, or Should humans aspire to non-violence? will be left for another occasion.
Descartes famously affirmed the centrality of the first-person in philosophy. Self-consciousness, to him, is the place from within our understanding of metaphysics and epistemology (and derivatively ethics, aesthetics, and all other philosophical endeavors) ultimately rest. I know that I exist, I am certain of it as I cannot fail to recognizing myself as thinking without actually being thinking; everything else follows.
Nominalism and Realism are the two most distinguished positions in western metaphysics dealing with the fundamental categories of reality. From the millenary debate between supporters of those two opposed camps spurred some of the most puzzling problems in metaphysics, both for nominalism and for realism. Because of those problems, some authors preferred to explore different routes. In this article we review three of them: universalism, trope theory, facts.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >"Beauty is truth,
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" > Necessity and
Confronted with the problem of explaining change, Aquinas borrows from Aristotle three notions, that he calls principia (principles): matter, privation, form. Briefly put, form is whatever quality a substance possesses; the acquisition of such quality may have happened either at the very moment in which the substance was created, or during the course of its existence.
How to tell an artwork from what is a work of art is not? What is it that makes an object, or a gesture, a work of art? Those questions lie at the core of Philosophy of Art, a major subfield of Aesthetics. Let’s see how they may be answered.
Some metaphysicians – the Nominalists – hold that all that there is, really, are particular entities. And when they say particular, they do not generically imply that everything is kind of unique. What they mean is that everything is heterogeneous to everything else. No two things are the same and no two things can possibly be the same. The universe is structured in accordance to a metaphysical law of particularity.
Philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy whose importance has extensively grown over the past century, in connection to the raising prestige and influence of disciplines such as physics, chemistry and – most lately – biology in understanding basic questions regarding the world as well as human identity and agency. Although its existence as a separate branch is relatively young and it is partially explainable also in terms of the specialization of academic research, issues in the philosophy of science have been debated throughout the whole history of philosophy, by authors such as Aristotle, Aquinas, Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, and Locke.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >The term philosophy
Plato and Aristotle defended different views on the nature of women and of their role in society. This article collects some influential quotes on the topic.
A selection of important quotes on time, which bear particular significance also for philosophical discussions.
Vegetarianism is regarded as a dietary style that is increasingly popular around the world. But, what does it take to be a vegetarian? In this article, I analyze vegetarian ideologies by rehearsing three questions.
Pessimism, philosophically connoted, may take on different forms depending on the corresponding target optimist position. Pessimist philosophers include several popular names, such as Nietzsche, Leopardi, and Camus. In Western civilization, the most successful moment for pessimism was during the nineteenth century, when pessimism comprised the most compelling arguments against positivism and the remnants of the enlightenment.
A central figure of modern philosophy, Friedrich Nietzsche was trained in classical philology. His production – in comparison to its relevance – was concentrated in an extraordinarily brief time span, between 1869 and 1888. Known for his stark contrasts with friends and colleagues, most famous the controversy with fellow composer Richard Wagner, as well as for his fragile health, Nietzsche had a life of turmoil.
Pleasure occupies a central role in the history of philosophy; on pleasure have been based some of the most important philosophical theories, and reflection on pleasure has kept busy the most brilliant philosophical minds. Moreover, each human being is called to deal with her own longing for pleasures of one sort or another. So, what is pleasure and what key philosophical issues does it give rise to?
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Mapping As Classifying
What is a desire? Such notion is often taken for granted in contemporary analytic philosophy. But to provide an answer to that question is all but straightforward. There are several important nodes to be untied before having a viable notion of desire. Let’s see seven of them.
Boundaries are quirk entities. Their existence depends on the existence of spatially extended entities: if there were no extended entities, there would be no boundaries and boundaries exist only as the most external components of extended entities. Furthermore, boundaries are one-dimensional entities. Although our everyday business makes often reference to boundaries, metaphysically speaking they are peculiar. For instance, you cannot physically split a boundary and you cannot penetrate or grab hold of it. This simple properties of boundaries lead to some serious problems for our conception of reality.
class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >Who Was Marcus
Can everything be mapped? Are there relationships among states of affairs or ideas that cannot be represented through a static relationship? To try and answer these questions, we shall first say something about maps.
“Pleasure is a human right because it is physiological; we cannot fail to feel pleasure when we eat.” Thus claims Carlo Petrini on page 50 of his Slow Food Nation (2007), while arguing for the importance of the hedonistic dimension of eating. Petrini’s position, which is exemplar of gastronomic hedonism, stands in direct opposition to gastronomic purism. Let’s see why that’s the case.
A selection of important quotes about history, which are relevant also for philosophical discussions.
Certain things you do for passion, others under the push of an emotion, others still out of duty. If you are passionate about something, this implies that you have been cultivating it for a while; on the contrary, if you feel emotioned towards a certain situation, this implies that your state has come to be relatively recently; finally, if you do something out of duty, that implies that you carry on the action regardless of whether your passions and emotions positively or negatively reflect the action. What’s the role of these three notions in contemporary society and how are they related to each other?
Mapping - as a device for classifying, orienting, comprehending - is so important to humans, that we may as well call our species Homo taxonomicus. After
There is a threefold distinction between linguistic acts that is particularly useful for philosophical purposes and some cognate endeavors. Its development is due by and large to British philosopher John L. Austin (1911-1960) and his American student John R. Searle (born 1932). The bulk of the distinction was presented during the William James lecture that Austin delivered at Harvard in 1955, then published in 1962, to be refined by Searle and other colleagues.
Sex and gender are among the most debated philosophical topics of the past few decades, and rightly so, as the conceptions of these two notions have changed – I would say matured – extensively. In this piece I shall collect some of the most remarkable statements about sex made by contemporary philosophers. I hope you enjoy them and, if you have any suggestion, please don’t hesitate to send it in.
Empathy is a topic of philosophical discussion linked especially to fundamental issues in philosophy of mind and ethics. Let’s review some of the main issues pertaining to this topic.
One of the most brilliant and influential minds of twentieth century, Alan Turing was a British mathematician and logician, a father of computer science and artificial intelligence, who also served as cryptanalyst during World War II and for some time afterwards. His tortuous life has been the source of literary inspiration, from his mother’s memoir (Alan M. Turing by Sara E. Turing, 1959) to Hugh Whitemore’s play, Breaking the Code, 1986, then produced in 1996 by BBC.
On February 22, 2012, the Feminist Philosophers’ blog and the Hey, Lady! blog called attention over a series of questionable pictures that professor Vincent F. Hendricks had published on the website of his logic course. The debate that ensued is useful to address some questions of importance to the philosophical community at large.